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WESTERN COOPERATION

Part I - Between Power Politics and Alliance of Democracies


Introduction
Chapter 1 - The first wold war and the peace treaties
Chapter 2 - The failure of collective security
Chapter 3 - The united states and collective security
Chapter 4 - The grand alliance
Chapter 5 - From containment to western cooperation
Chapter 6 - Western cooperation beyond containment

DOCUMENTS : FOOTPRINTS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

 

For the study of international relations, knowledge of the history of Western Cooperation, since the appearance of the United States of America as the major power in world politics, is essential. In this volume Professor Frans A.M. Alting von Geusau presents the history of Western Cooperation around a central theme: the effort of realist idealists to replace power politics by closer cooperation between democracies. Part I reviews the broader history from America's entry in the First World War to the inauguration of Barack Obama as President of the United States. Part II focuses on the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as the cornerstone of Western Cooperation.The first edition of this book was published in January 2002 shortly after the terrorist attack on America on 11 September 2001. The presidency of George W. Bush jr. in the United States has been marked deeply by 9/11 and America's war on terror. The end of the second term of his presidency and NATOs sixtieth anniversary would be the appropriate time to bring out a second revised edition. The changes made in all chapters amount to major adaptations. In addition to new facts they include new insights gained from comments on the first edition and additional reading for this new edition. Prologue and Epilogue are newly written. The most important changes are in the format. The texts of the Chapters are brought together in one volume. The documents are no longer in the book itself but can be found on this website.

 

FOR UPDATED INFORMATION ON SUCH ISSUES AS NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, MISSILE DEFENCE AND THE NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF NATO, PLEASE CONSULT "NEWS" on this website.

 

Part 1 : Western Cooperation

 - Chapter 1

  1. The Violation of Belgian Neutrality
  2. The Use of Poison Gas
  3. The Propaganda War
  4. The sinking of the Lusitania
  5. The Zimmerman Note to the German Minister to Mexico
  6. Address of the President of the United States to the Senate
  7. President Woodrow Wilson’s War Message
  8. The Reichstag Peace Resolution
  9. Pope Benedict XV's Peace Proposal
  10. President Wilson's Programme for Peace
  11. The Allies' Conditional Acceptance of the Fourteen Points
  12. The Armistice Demands
  13. Resolution Constituting the Comintern
  14. German Counter Proposals
  15. Peace Treaty of Versailles
  16. Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary
  17. The Treaties of Peace Between the United States and Germany, Austria and Hungary Respectively
  18. Treaty of Sèvres and Lausanne

 - Chapter 2

  1. Franco-Polish Agreement
  2. The Soviet-German Rapallo Treaty and Chicerin's Speech
  3. The Treaties of Locarno
  4. Neutrality Agreement Between Germany and the U.S.S.R.
  5. Extracts from Hindenburg's Testament
  6. Nürnberg Laws
  7. German preparation for aggression
  8. British-French appeasement
  9. German planning for war; Speech by General Jodl
  10. Statement by the Prime Minister in the House of Commons
  11. Stalin's Report
  12. Treaty of Nonaggression Between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and additional documents.
  13. Address by Adolf Hitler
  14. Minister Neville Chamberlain speeches to the House of Commons
  15. Soviet Statement to Poland
  16. Three-Power Pact Between Germany, Italy, and Japan
  17. Soviet Note to Germany
  18. Exchange of letters between Hitler and Franco

 - Chapter 3

  1. Excerpts from annual messages of Presidents Harding, Hoover, Coolidge
  2. Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  3. The Multilateral Pact 'RENUNCIATION OF WAR' BY EDWIN BORCHARD
  4. U.S. Recognition of the Soviet Union 16 November 1933
  5. The Quarantine Speech
  6. Revision/Repeal Neutrality Act
  7. President Roosenvelt's address at the University of Virginia
  8. Message to the Congress informing them of the exchange of certain over-age destroyers for British naval and air bases
  9. State of the Union 1941
  10. The Lend Lease Act

 - Chapter 4

  1. Soviet-Polish Agreement, 30 July 1941
  2. Atlantic Charter, 14 August 1941
  3. Joint Message of Assistance to the Soviet Union, 15 August 1941
  4. Declaration of the United Nations, 1 January 1942
  5. Wannsee Protocol, 20 January 1942
  6. Stalin's Order for the Katyn Forest Massacre, 5 March 1940
  7. Mutual Assistance Agreement. United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, 26 May 1942
  8. Moscow Declaration on general Security, 30 October 1943
  9. The Teheran Conference, 2 December 1943
  10. Bretton Woods Decisions, 22 July 1944
  11. The Yalta Conference (excerpts), February 1945
  12. The Potsdam Conference, 2 August 1945

- Chapter 5

  1. Moscow Embassy Telegram #5/1:  'The Long Telegram' 22 FEBRUARY 1946

  2. Winston Churchill .Address at Fulton, Missouri

  3. Truman Doctrine

  4. The Marshall Plan, 1947

  5. Résumé of World Situation 6 NOVEMBER 1947

  6. The Brussels Pact

  7. Convention for European Economic Cooperation 16 APRIL 1948

  8. U.S. Senate Resolution 239 (VandenBerg resolution) 11 June 1948

  9. Department of State Policy Statement: Germany 26 AUGUST 1948

  10. Washington Exploratory Conversations on Security 9 September 1948

  11. The North Atlantic Pact: Collective Defense and the Preservation of Peace, Security and Freedom Collective Defense and the Preservation of Peace, Security and Freedom in the North Atlantic Community, 20 March 1949

  12. Memorandum by the Secretary of State to President Truman

  13. NSC 58 on Policy towards Eastern Europe 5 OCTOBER 1949

- Chapter 6

  1. Chronology of German Unity and German Unity Treaty
  2. The new World Order
  3. The G-7 Economic Summit
  4. U.S. Recognition of former Soviet Republics
  5. London Declaration on a Transformed North Atlantic Alliance. 6 July 1990
  6. Rome Declaration on Peace and Cooperation. 7-8 November 1991
  7. European Community and U.S. recognition Yugoslav Republics
  8. Statement by the President of the UN Security Council. 31 January 1992
  9. Remarks of Anthony Lake. 21 September 1993.
  10. Summary Overview to: 'Unfinished Peace'. Report of the International Commission on the Balkans
  11. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America
  12. President Bush on the war in Iraq
  13. President Bush. farewell address
  14. Foreign Policy of the new administration (2009)

 

Part 2 : Western Cooperation

- Chapter 1

  1. The North Atlantic Treaty 4 APRIL 1949
  2. Memorandum of the Government of the USSR concerning the North Atlantic Treaty
  3. Reply Ambassador Austin 2 APRIL 1949
  4. Mutual Defense Assistance Act
  5. North Atlantic Council September 1949
  6. NSC 68 United States Objectives and Programs for National Security 14 APRIL 1950
  7. North Atlantic Council meetings16-18 SEPTEMBER 1950 Final Communiqué
  8. NATO Reorganisation: Press Communique 3 May 1951
  9. Reorganization of NATO

- Chapter 2

  1. The Anglo-American Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement, 27 JANUARY 1950 (...)
  2. Agreement on the Status of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, National Representatives and International Staff, 20 September 1951
  3. Status of Forces: Framework Agreement, 19 June 1951 Excerpts
  4. US-Senate resolution 99 4 APRIL 1951Excerpts
  5. Paris Agreements23 OCTOBER 1954I. Four Power Conference  Paris, 23 October 1954
  6. Communiqué NATO Council, 16-19 DECEMBER 1957 , Final Communiqué
  7. Message by President Eisenhower on Atomic Cooperation with NATO Countries 26 MAY 1959
  8. Documents on French withdrawal from NATO 1966 French Disengagement from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  9. Council Communiqué, 8 JUNE 1966, Ministerial Communiqué
  10. Governmental Declaration of Chancellor Willy Brandt, 28 OCTOBER 1969, Excerpts
  11. United States Foreign Policy for the 1970's Excerpts A New Strategy for Peace
  12. Declaration on Atlantic Relations, 18-19 June 1974 Declaration on Atlantic Relations
  13. Special Meeting of Foreign and Defence Ministers of NATO, 12 December 1979
  14. The Strategic Defence Initiative, 23 MARCH 1983
  15. Declaration on the Events in Poland, 1 January 1981
  16. Declaration of the North Atlantic Council, 30 MAY 1989
  17. Partnership with the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe, 7 June 1991
  18. Statement by the North Atlantic Council, 12 September 2001
  19. President Bush to congress, 20 september 2001
  20. Statement to the Press, 4 October 2001
  21. Prague Summit Declaration
  22. Istanbul Summit Communiqué
  23. Riga Summit Declaration
  24. Bucharest Summit Declaration
  25. Report by the Secretary General of Progress During the period April 1952 to April 1957
  26. Confidential Supplement to the Report, 24 April 1957
  27. Reform of NATO's Integrated Military Command Structure, 25 APRIL 1999
  28. NATO's relations with the United Nations
  29. Strasbourg / Kehl Summit Declaration

- Chapter 3

  1. Summary Record of the First Session of the NAC, 15 September 1950
  2. NATO's Strategic Concept
  3. Strategic Guidance, 9 DECEMBER 1952
  4. NORTH ATLANTIC MILITARY COMMITTEE DECISION ON M.C. 48 A Report by the Military Committee on THE MOST EFFECTIVE PATTERN OF NATO MILITARY STRENGTH FOR THE NEXT FEW YEARS
  5. NORTH ATLANTIC MILITARY COMMITTEE DECISION ON M.C. 48/1, A report by the Military Committee on THE MOST EFFECTIVE PATTERN OF NATO MILITARY STRENGTH FOR THE NEXT FEW YEARS - REPORT No. 2
  6. Directive to the NATO Military Authorities from the North Atlantic Council,13 DECEMBER 1956
  7. NATO's Overall Strategic Concept, 23 MAY 1957
  8. FINAL DECISION ON MC 48/2 A Report by the Military Committee on MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE STRATEGIC CONCEPT
  9. Guidance to the NATO Military Authorities from the Defence Planning Committee, 1967
  10. NATO's Overall Strategic Concept, 16 JANUARY 1968
  11. FINAL DECISION ON MC 48/3 MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE STRATEGIC CONCEPT FOR THE DEFENCE OF THE NATO AREA
  12. The Alliance's New Strategic Concept,8 NOVEMBER 1991
  13. The Alliance's Strategic Concept, 24 APRIL 1999
  14. Adopted by the Security Council at its 3228th meeting on 4 June 1993
  15. General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 21 NOVEMBER 1995
  16. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1031, 15 DECEMBER 1995
  17. Statement on Bosnia and Herzegovina; North Atlantic Council 10 DECEMBER 1996
  18. Statement on Bosnia and Herzegovina North Atlantic Council 28 MAY 1998
  19. The situation in and around Kosovo Statement by the North Atlantic Council 12 APRIL 1999
  20. Military Technical Agreement 9 JUNE 1999
  21. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, 10 JUNE 1999
  22. Kosovo One Year on; Achievement and Challenge; Secretary General of the NATO, Report 21 MARCH 2000
  23. Operation Active Endeavour
  24. Adopted by the Security Council at its 4443rd meeting, on 20 December 2001
  25. NATO's military concept for defence against terrorism
  26. Comprehensive Political Guidance Endorsed by NATO Heads of State and Government on 29 November 2006
  27. ISAF's Strategic Vision Declaration by the Heads of State and Government of the Nations contributing to the UN-mandated NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, 3 Apr. 2008
  28. AGREEMENT ON PROVISIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN AFGHANISTAN PENDING THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMANENT GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION
  29. Declaration on Alliance Security

- Chapter 4

  1. Ottawa Declaration 20 SEPTEMBER 1951, 17th October 1951
  2. Interim and Final Report of the Committee on the North Atlantic Community 1951/1952
  3. Summary Reports of the North Atlantic Council JUNE/OCTOBER 1955
  4. Non-Military Cooperation; 'Report of the Three Wise Man'1956 Non-Military Cooperation
  5. Interim Reports of the Secretary General on Political Cooperation 17 NOVEMBER 1958, Excerpts
  6. Summary Reports of the North Atlantic Council on Economic Counter Measurements in face of the Berlin Crisis, OCTOBER 1961
  7. North Atlantic Council meetings on Non-Profileration 1964/1965
  8. The Future Tasks of the Alliance; Report of the Council 'The Harmel report'1967
  9. Summary and Conclusions from a report prepaired for the Committee on Foreign Relations of the US Senate, 17 SEPTEMBER 1982
  10. Partnership for Peace; Invitation JANUARY 1994 Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council/North Atlantic Cooperation Council, NATO Headquarters, Brussels, 10-11 January 1994
  11. Basic Document of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, 30 MAY 1997
  12. AGREEMENT ON ADAPTATION OF THE TREATY ON CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE
  13. EURO-ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP WORK PLAN

- Chapter 5

  1. Protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty
  2. Summary Records of the Council on the adherence of Turkey and Greece
  3. Protocol on the Accession of the Federal Republic of Germany and Resolutions of the Council
  4. The United States - Spanish Agreement, 26 SEPTEMBER 1953, Preamble
  5. Study on NATO Enlargement, 3 SEPTEMBER 1995
  6. Report to the Congress on the Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Rationale, Benefits, Costs and Implications, 24 FEBRUARY 1997
  7. Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation, 27 MAY 1997
  8. Membership Action Plan (MAP), 24 APRIL 1999
  9. Joint Statement of the Foreign Ministers of the Czech Republic,Hungary and Poland, 18 MARCH 2000
  10. Charter of Partnership among The Republic of Latvia, The Republic of Estonia, The Republic of Lithuania and The United States of America, 16 JANUARY 1997
  11. Charter on a Distinctive Partnership Between The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Ukraine, 9 JULY 1997
  12. NATO enlargement
  13. National Security Concept of the Russian Federation
  14. NATO-Russia Relations: A New Quality
  15. Final communiqué (3 December 2008)

- Chapter 6

  1. Text of the Pleven Plan
  2. European Defense Community Treaty
  3. FRENCH-GERMAN TREATY OF 22 JANUARY 1963
  4. Statement by the President of United States Policy Respecting the Western European Union, 10 MARCH 1955
  5. EU, WEU and NATO: Towards a European Security and Defence Identity, November 1999
  6. Platform on European Security interests, 27 OCTOBER 1987
  7. WEU Documents, WEU'S ROLE AND PLACE IN THE NEW EUROPEAN SECURITY ARCHITECTURE, 22 FEBRUARY 1991
  8. Declaration of the WEU on the Role of Western European Union and its Relations with the European Union and with the Atlantic Alliance, 22 JULY 1997
  9. Franco-British summit; Joint declaration on European defence, 4 DECEMBER 1998
  10. Towards a European Security and Defence Policy; European Councils 1999-2000
  11. The European Union Military Structures
  12. European Security and Defence: WEU's Role
  13. Presidency Report on Strengthening the Common European Security and Defence Policy to the European Council
  14. North Atlantic Council Excerpts
  15. EU-NATO ON DECLARATION ON ESDP, 16 DECEMBER 2002
  16. EU-NATO Consultation
    1 Background
    2 European Defense
  17. NATO-EU: a strategic partnership

- Chapter 7

  1. NATO Strategic 2010
  2. NATO Summit 2010
  3. NATO Summit 2012
  4. NATO Summit_Declaration 2014
  5. PISM Policy Paper no 16 (118)
  6. NATO - Official text_ Statement by NATO Defence Ministers, 25-Jun
  7. Anne Applebaum, the worst of the madness
  8. NATO declaration cf.article 4.
  9. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
  10. NATO operations and missions
  11. Defence Expenditures
  12. NATO SUMMIT 2016