Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.[8] Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another.

People smuggling (also called human smuggling and migrant smuggling) is a related practice which is characterized by the consent of the person being smuggled. Smuggling situations can descend into human trafficking through coercion and exploitation. Trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others.

The International Labour Organization has reported that child workers, minorities, and irregular migrants are at considerable risk of more extreme forms of exploitation. Statistics shows that over half of the world's 215 million young workers are observed to be in hazardous sectors, including forced sex work and forced street begging. Ethnic minorities and highly marginalized groups of people are highly estimated to work in some of the most exploitative and damaging sectors, such as leather tanning, mining, and stone quarry work.

Human trafficking is the third largest crime industry in the world, behind drug dealing and arms trafficking, and is the fastest-growing activity of trans-national criminal organizations.

Human trafficking is condemned as a violation of human rights by international conventions. In addition, human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union. According to a report by the U.S. State Department, Belarus, Iran, Russia, and Turkmenistan remain among the worst countries when it comes to providing protection against human trafficking and forced labour.


December 2019
76 pages
Redacteur: Can Arihan
European Law Students’ Association (ELSA)

ISBN: 9789462405523

Efforts to attain one of the main aims of ELSA, the European Law Students' Assocation, continues with the Bilateral Legal Research Group on Human Trafficking. This publication is meant to contribute to the exchange of experience and knowledge among law students and young lawyers. As the result of the collaboration between ELSA Ankara and Komotini, it shall not surprise the reader that it tackles an issue of great regional significance. Bilateral Legal Research Group on Human Trafficking offers an understandable yet through presentation for its readers.

It starts with the question of defining human trafficking and its victims with an emphasis on its differences from similar concepts such as migrant smuggling. It, then, explains how victims are identified and what the challenges are in this process. Also, it presents the national provisions to be applied as regards the crime of human trafficking with references to case law. Since children and women, too, are subject to this phenomenon, the research does not fall short neither from introducing international and national instruments regarding the protection of these vulnerable groups nor from making recommendations on further steps to be taken for their effective protection. Bearing the endeavours of numerous researches, academics, directors and coordinators this publication shall not fail in familiarizing the reader with the law of Turkish and Greek lands on human trafficking.

MEH van Reisen, M Estefanos, and CRJJ Rijken
Pages: 238 pages
Shipping Weight: 650 gram
Published: 06-2014
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (softcover) : 9789462400825

Product Description


Human trafficking in the Sinai started in 2009 and involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture and killing of men, women and children. This book follows from the publication “Human Trafficking in the Sinai: Refugees between Life and Death” (2012). It describes how refugees are abducted and brought to the Sinai and identifies the modus operandi of the trafficking. It also looks at what happens after the hostages are released and where they go. This book introduces the term ‘trafficking cycle’ to describe how refugees become trapped in a vicious cycle of detention, exploitation and abuse, or take risks that may lead to tragedies such as the shipwreck off the coast of Lampedusa on 3 October 2013. It also portrays how Sinai survivors remain owners of their own history and keepers of their own dignity. The book is based on interviews with hostages and survivors of the trafficking in the Sinai and others.

Mirjam van Reisen is Professor of International Social Responsibility at Tilburg University. Meron Estefanos is a Swedish journalist of Eritrean decent. Conny Rijken is lawyer and a specialist in trafficking in human beings at Tilburg University. Guest author, Erik Borgman, is Professor of Systematic Theology at Tilburg University.



Conny Rijken (ed.)
Pages: 525 pages
Shipping Weight: 950 gram
Published: 04-2010
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (softcover) : 9789058506535

Product Description

Combating trafficking in human beings (THB) for labour exploitation requires additional skills, knowledge and awareness for effective investigation and prosecution, and for the identification and assistance of victims of this form of THB. Actors other than the police and the prosecution services (such as labour inspectorates, social investigation services and municipalities) have also become involved in these activities. It is unclear which role these actors can have in identifying victims and in investigating and prosecuting (cross-border) THB for labour exploitation and which improvements are needed. They are often unfamiliar with, for instance, the specific needs of victims, how trafficking networks operate, and how to cooperate with colleagues abroad. These problems obviously hamper the combating of THB for labour exploitation. In addition, difficulties in defining THB for labour exploitation still exist. Labour exploitation, as such, is not a term used in the Palermo Protocol or the EU Directive on Preventing and Combating THB and Protecting Victims. One can say that labour exploitation includes at least, forced and compulsory labour and services, slavery and slavery-like practices, although this does not solve the problems encountered in defining the crime.

In this book, these and other problems, as well as the challenges of dealing with these problems, are identified. It includes research in five countries (Austria, The Netherlands, Romania, Serbia and Spain), research on the EU legal framework, an analysis of the country studies as well as four articles reflecting on these problems.

Conny Rijken is Associate Professor at Tilburg University and Senior Research Fellow at INTERVICT. Dr. Rijken has done extensive research on Trafficking in Human Beings especially from an EU point of view. Furthermore she is specialised in the field of European Criminal Law. Rijken was project coordinator of the EU funded project ‘Combating THB for Labour Exploitation’.

Some of her other notable recent assignments include the establishment of Joint Investigation Teams, raising awareness in the Judiciary on Trafficking in Human Beings, and the certification of the prostitution sector in the Netherlands.