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WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS

A war crimes trial is the trial of persons charged with criminal violation of the laws and customs of war and related principles of international law committed during armed conflict.

The trial of Peter von Hagenbach by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1474, was the first “international” war crimes trials and also of command responsibility. Hagenbach was put on trial for atrocities committed during the occupation of Breisach, found guilty, and beheaded. Since he was convicted for crimes, "he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent", although Hagenbach defended himself by arguing that he was only following orders from the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, to whom the Holy Roman Empire had given Breisach.

In 1865, Henry Wirz, a Confederate officer, was held accountable and hanged for appalling conditions at Andersonville Prison where many Union soldiers died during the American Civil War.

During the Second Boer War, the British Army court-martialed Breaker Morant, Peter Handcock, Alfred Taylor, and several other officers for multiple murders of POWs and many civilian noncombatants in the Northern Transvaal. See Court-martial of Breaker Morant.

After World War I, a small number of German personnel were tried by a German court in the Leipzig War Crimes Trials for crimes allegedly committed during that war.

Article 227 of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers after the First World War, “publicly arraign[ed] William II of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties.” The former Kaiser had escaped to the Netherlands, however, and despite demands for his extradition having been made, the Dutch refused to surrender him, and he was not brought to trial. Germany, as a signatory to the treaty, thus was placed on notice as to what might occur in the event of a subsequent war.

In May 1993, during the Yugoslav Wars following the massive war crimes, and acts of "ethnic cleansing" in the former Yugoslavia by Bosnian-Serb forces, the United Nations established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, to try war criminals of all nationalities. The crimes indicted included grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide; it was the first tribunal in which sexual assault was prosecuted as a war crime. The ICTY was the first international war crimes tribunal since the Nuremberg Trials. Ultimately, nearly 161 individuals were indicted in the ICTY: 68% of Serb ethnicity. Croatian-Serb, Bosnian-Serb, Serbian, and Bosnian-Croat officials were convicted of crimes against humanity, and Bosnian-Serb leaders of genocide. In 1994, the UN opened the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda following the April–June genocide in that country of Hutu nationals. The tribunals, while effective in prosecution of individuals, proved to be a costly venture, and exposed the need for a permanent tribunal, which was eventually known as the International Criminal Court.

 

ICTY

Wolf Legal Publishers
Pages: pages
Shipping Weight: 1200 gram
Published: 12-2009
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (hardcover) : 9789058503244

Product Description

Jurisprudence, court materials and related documents of the Yugoslav Tribunals. In this series landmark-cases of the Yugoslav Tribunal are being presented. Every volume contains a separate part of the Trial case. Tadic on Trial 1 is the first book in this series but has not been published before. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 are also available.

Tadic on Trial 2 - The judgements

€100.00

Tadic on Trial 2 - The judgements

€100.00

Jurisprudence, court materials and related documents of the Yugoslav Tribunal
R. van Laar, J. van der Sanden, W.-J. van der Wolf & T. van Lieshout (eds.)
Pages: 485 pages
Shipping Weight: 1500 gram
Published: 07-2007
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (hardcover) : 9789058503251

Product Description

In this series landmark-cases of the Yugoslav Tribunal are being presented. Every volume contains a separate part of the Trial case.

In this volume the judgements in Trial and Appeals Chamber are being presented.

Jurisprudence, court materials and related documents of the Yugoslav Tribunal
R. van Laar, J. van der Sanden, W.-J. van der Wolf, T. van Lieshout (eds.)
Pages: 757 pages
Shipping Weight: 2000 gram
Published: 07-2007
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (hardcover) : 9789058503268

Product Description

In this series landmark-cases of the Yugoslav Tribunal are being presented. Every volume contains a separate part of the Trial case.

In this volume transcripts of the hearings in the Trial Chamber are being presented.

Jurisprudence, court materials and related documents of the Yugoslav Tribunal
Wolf Legal Publishers
Pages: 755 pages
Shipping Weight: 2000 gram
Published: 07-2007
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (hardcover) : 9789058503275

Product Description

In this series landmark-cases of the Yugoslav Tribunal are being presented. Every volume contains a separate part of the Trial case.

In this volume transcripts of the hearings in Trial Chamber are being presented.

Jurisprudence, court materials and related documents of the Yugoslav Tribunals
Wolf Legal Publishers
Pages: 747 pages
Shipping Weight: 1900 gram
Published: 07-2007
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (hardcover) : 9789058503282

Product Description

In this series landmark-cases of the Yugoslav Tribunal are being presented. Every volume contains a separate part of the Trial case.

In this volume transcripts of the hearings in Trial Chamber are being presented.

ICTR

And I Live On

€25.00

And I Live On

€25.00

The Resilience of Rwandan Genocide Survivors of Sexual Violence
Anne-Marie de Brouwer, Sandra Ka Hon Chu, Eef je de Volder & Samer Muscati
Pages: 264 pages
Shipping Weight: 820 gram
Published: 19-0420
Publisher: WLP
Language: US
ISBN (softcover) : 9789462406001

Product Description

 

In the 100 days of genocide that ravaged the small East Central African nation of Rwanda between April and July 1994, approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed, and an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 women and girls were raped, as well as an unknown number of men and boys. Almost all Rwandan women who survived the genocide were victims of sexual violence or were profoundly affected by it, and an astounding 70 per cent of survivors are living with hiv.

And I Live On features searing testimonials from Rwandan survivors of the genocide15 and 25 years after the horrific events of 1994. Through their narratives and Samer Muscati’s powerful portraits, these women and one man bear witness to the crimes committed in their country and to the suffering they continue to endure. The testimonials also showcase the survivors’ extraordinary strength, courage and resilience—challenging the stigma they face both as survivors of sexual violence and as people living with hiv. In speaking out, they provide a glimpse into the worlds of survivors living with the genocide’s legacy decades after a conflict. Their stories, along with the accompanying text and illustrations, make an indelible impact.

About the authors

Anne-Marie de Brouwer works in the field of international criminal justice, conflict-related sexual violence, human trafficking and victims’ rights at Impact: Center against Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence in Conflict. She is the co-founder of Mukomeze.

Sandra Ka Hon Chu is the Director of Research and Advocacy at the Canadian hiv/aids Legal Network, where she works on hiv-related human rights issues concerning prisons, drug policy, sex work, women and immigration.

Eefje de Volder is an anthropologist and lawyer working in the field of human trafficking, victims’ rights and conflict-related sexual violence at Impact: Center against Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence in Conflict.

Samer Muscati is a Canadian lawyer, documentary photographer and former journalist. As a senior researcher for Human Rights Watch, he focused on women’s rights in conflict zones. He runs the International Human Rights program at University of Toronto’s Faculty of Law.

 

For more information on the project, presentation of the book and events please contact:

impact-now.org

 

REVIEWS OF THE BOOK

“If the designation of survivor resonates over the miserable label of victim, then these lives that persist, strengthen, must continue to speak, loudly.”

Patricia Viseur Sellers, Special Advisor on Gender to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and former Gender Legal Advisor for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

“Graphically, and without doubt, this book makes the case that rape is no lesser a crime than murder.”

Lieutenant-General (ret) The Honorable Roméo Dallaire

“Survivors choose to tell their stories in the hope that others will hear. These searing testimonials of inconsolable anguish and awe-inspiring resilience will change you forever and spark you to act to honour dignity.”

Dr. James Orbinski, former international president of Doctors without Borders/msf and author of An Imperfect Offering


“The survivors of unspeakably brutal sexual violence managed to leave their past in the past. They realized it would destroy their future. With incredible strength they managed to live for what today has to offer, not for what the terrible past has taken away. This book tells us how they returned the smiles to their faces and the hope in their hearts.”

Patrick Cammaert, Assistant Secretary-General, Head of UNMHA


“This book is about moving beyond surviving into becoming victors. It reminds us that while their pain and abuse will remain remarkable, their testimonials and current situation is what resilience and courage mean. This is what the commitment to remember, unite and renew yields.”

Dr. Usta Kaitesi, Acting ceo, Rwanda Governance Board


“And I Live On: The Resilience of Rwandan Genocide Survivors of Sexual Violence is an exemplary contribution to genocide studies and advances public understanding of genocide. It is a distinct contribution to many disciplines including genocide studies, sociology, history, conflict resolution and human rights. The book is also a testament to the editors’ and photographer’s vision of the consequential role we all have in contributing to a more compassionate and just world. Pioneering allies
to survivors, they serve as an example to us all.”

Dr. Kimberley Ducey, Associate Professor, The University of Winnipeg

 

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