Jaap Hoeksma is a philosopher of law and director of Euroknow.
For more information about the author click here.
Jaap published with Wolf Legal Publishers the following titles:
- J. Hoeksma and D. Schoenmaker, A polity called EU, Oisterwijk 2011
- J. Hoeksma, From Common Market to Common Democracy, Oisterwijk 2016
- J. Hoeksma, The Theory of Democratic Integration, Oisterwijk 2018
- J. Hoeksma, European Democracy, Tilburg 2019
Below you can take a look into the books.
If you would like to order the books you can click on the ORDER HERE or you can mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org
From July 2020 you can order the books directly from our own website.
A polity called EU
Essays on the Exercise of Sovereignty in the European Union and the Euro Area
Jaap Hoeksma, Dirk Schoenmaker
price: € 15,00
One of the main challenges of post-war political philosophy has been to establish the nature of the European Union. The aim of these essays is to demonstrate that the Lisbon Treaty of 2009 has construed the EU as a democracy without turning the Union into a state. Consequently, the EU has neither become a federal state nor remained a confederation, but has rather developed into a democratic polity of states and citizens. The EU may therefore be described in positive terms as a Union of democratic states, which also constitutes a democracy of its own.
This revolutionary breakthrough in the theory of international relations is not only of academic interest, but has also direct consequences for the current battle over the euro. The political construction of the EU as a democratic polity of states and citizens is built upon the practice of joint sovereignty. As the Economic and Monetary Union forms part of the EU, the euro rests on shared sovereignty too. In line with the Westphalian system of international relations, however, the markets believe that a currency must be backed by a state. They regard the euro as a currency without a state and predict that it is doomed to fail.
The authors of these essays put forward that it should first be established what the EU actually is before lasting solutions for the euro can be found. They argue that the EU and the Member States of the euro area are the joint sovereign behind the euro. Finally, they suggest that the Europe’s political leaders should demonstrate beyond doubt that it is possible to jointly exercise sovereignty without becoming ineffective. Seen in this perspective, the battle for the euro is indeed a struggle for the EU.
FROM COMMON MARKET TO COMMON DEMOCRACY
A Theory of Democratic Integration
price: € 19,50
Since its foundation in 1992 the EU has been developing from an international organisation towards a European democracy. The Maastricht Treaty introduced the citizenship of the Union, while the Treaty of Amsterdam included the concept of democracy in the core values of the EU and ‘Lisbon’ construed the European Union as a democracy without turning the Union into a State.
This development has not been foreseen by politicians and scholars. According to the prevailing theories the EU should have become either a sovereign State of Europe or a Europe of sovereign States. The theory of democratic integration, which is presented in this monograph, replaces the outdated paradigm of the Westphalian system of international relations with the civic perspective of democracy and the rule of law. From this angle, it seems obvious that, if two or more democratic states decide to share the exercise of sovereignty in a number of fields with the view to attain common goals, the organisation they establish for this purpose should be democratic too. The theory of democratic integration allows for the development of the EU to be summarised in the maxim that the Union is evolving from a Common Market to a Common Democracy.
The Theory of Democratic Integration
Constructing the EU as a Union of States and citizens
Softcover/Paperback, 37 pages, 14,95 euro
E-book; 9,95 euro
The theory of democratic integration (TDI) is the first political theory to account for the dual character of the EU as a Union of States and a Union of Citizens. The new theory argues that the aim of the EU is not to become either a state or an organisation of states, but rather to function as a European democracy. In fact, the TDI demonstrates that the EU can only work as a transnational European democracy, if it is perceived and presented as a Union of States and Citizens.
The TDI brings about a revolutionary breakthrough in EU research inasmuch as that it replaces the traditional paradigm of states in the study of the EU with the civic template of democracy and human rights. From the civilian perspective, it seems obvious that, if two or more democratic states agree to share the exercise of sovereignty in a number of fields in order to attain common goals, the organisation they establish for this purpose should be democratic too. In contrast to other international organisations the EU can be defined as a union of states and citizens, in which the citizens are entitled to participate both in the national democracies of their countries and in the common democracy of the Union.
Simultaneously, the TDI sheds fresh light on the way in which sovereignty works in the EU. Whereas the prevailing Westphalian theory emphasises that sovereignty has to be one and indivisible, the functioning of the EU is based on the shared exercise of sovereignty. Defying the argument of economists that sharing sovereignty is a zero sum game, the TDI argues that shared sovereignty is reinforced sovereignty. The member states strengthen their position in the world by sharing the exercise of sovereignty in the framework of the Union. The manner, in which the euro has been saved after the financial crisis of the past decade, forms a compelling example of the effectiveness of shared
In the analysis of the TDI, the present shortcomings in the democratic governance of the EU have to be attributed to the transition of the Union from an organisation of democratic states to a democratic Union of States and Citizens. However, the normative demand, which the TDI requires the EU to meet, is that the Union should not only consist of democratic states based on the rule of law, but should also function as a constitutional democracy of its own.
Blogs, Tweets & Treatises
ISBN: 978-94-6240-531-8 (softcover/paperback), 172 pages
ISBN: 978-94-6240-532-5 (.epub)
European Democracy is a new concept, which requires an own and distinct political philosophy. The Theory of Democratic Integration informs the functioning of the EU as a European democracy. It introduces the primary principle of transnational democracy, which holds that, if two or more democratic states agree to share the exercise of sovereignty in a number of fields with a view to attain common goals, their organisation should be democratic too.
The Theory of Democratic Integration (TDI) contains the most significant breakthrough in political theory since the 17th century as it substitutes the civic perspective of democracy and human rights in the study of the EU for the Westphalian paradigm of states. While the process of European integration has started originally as a cooperation between states, it has evolved over the decades towards an unprecedented Union of States and Citizens. Since the decisions taken by the EU on a daily basis are affecting the lives of over 400 million citizens, the study of the EU can no longer be conducted on the basis of the perspective of states.
The academic achievement of the new theory is that it breaks the deadlock in the debate about the Nature of the EU and the Future of Europe. Though political scientists and philosophers of law continue to argue that the European Union cannot be defined, the TDI portrays the EU in plain and simple terms as a Union of States and Citizens, which increasingly functions as a European democracy. While it is currently evolving from an organisation of democratic states to a transnational democracy, the aim of the EU is to become the first democratic regional organisation in the world.
The EU certainly constitutes a Union of States and Citizens.
Herman van Rompuy, First President of the European Council
I fully endorse the principle that, if two or more democratic states agree to share
the exercise of sovereignty in a number of fields in order to attain common goals,
their organisation should be democratic too.
Frans Timmermans, First Vice-President European Commission
You’ve squared the circle!
EU Democracy Game EUROCRACY
In the wake of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty Jaap Hoeksma devised the board game Eurocracy with the view to enable young Europeans to participate in the EU. He wanted to check by means of a game whether European democracy could also be a viable option in reality.
In the game the players assume the role of Spitzenkandidat of a European political party. They embark on an election campaign through the entire Union with the aim to become President of the European Union. The game takes about an hour to play and is fun for the whole family and for all Erasmus students in the EU.
A few copies of the game (3rd edition) are still available as collector's item for the price of Euro 29,50 excl post & package.
Send a mail to: email@example.com to order the game.